PENGARUH BERBAGAI KONDISI PREPARASI DAN PENYIMPANAN SUSU FORMULA PADA PERTUMBUHAN SPORA Bacillus cereus DAN Clostridium perfringens
[The growth of Bacillus cereus and Clostridium perfringens spores under a variety of preparation and storage condition]
Maya Purwanti1), Mirnawati Sudarwanto2), Winiati P. Rahayu3), dan A. Winny Sanjaya2)
1)Jurusan Penyuluhan Peternakan, Sekolah Tinggi Penyuluhan Pertanian Bogor, 2) Fakultas Kedokteran Hewan
Institut Pertanian Bogor, dan 3) Fakultas Teknologi Pertanian, Institut Pertanian Bogor
Diterima 23 Juli 2008 / Disetujui 14 Juni 2009
The aim of this study was to evaluate the ability of Bacillus cereus and Clostridium perfringens spores to survived in different preparation temperature (25, 35, and 70°C for B. cereus and 25, 45, 70ºC for C. perfringens) and modified storage condition (with 50 and 75% humidity; opened, closed and opened twice a day during period of observation) of powdered milk formula. The spores of B. cereus ATCC 13061 and C. perfringens CP-1 artificially contaminated to the milk formula. Results showed that B. cereus and C. perfringens spores were germinated and growth in reconstituted milk formula. Bacteria population increased ≥1 log within 3 hours at room temperature (28-29ºC). The spores of both bacteria survived from dry condition of powdered milk formula, like when aw of the formulas increased cause of storage condition.
Key words: Bacillus cereus, Clostridium perfingens, powdered milk formula, preparation temperature, storage condition
PENGGUNAAN XILANASE Streptomyces sp. 45 I-3 AMOBIL UNTUK HIDROLISIS XILAN TONGKOL JAGUNG
[Immobilization of Extracellular Xylanase from Streptomyces sp. 45 I-3 for Hydrolysis of Corncob Xylan ]
Anja Meryandini1),2), Titi Candra Sunarti3), Ferry Mutia3), Niken Financia Gusmawati4),
dan Yulin Lestari2)
1)Pusat Penelitian Sumberdaya Hayati dan Bioteknologi IPB,Gedung PAU, Kampus IPB Darmaga 16680
2)Departemen Biologi, FMIPA-IPB, Gedung Fapet Lt 5 Wing 1, Kampus IPB Darmaga 16680
3)Departemen Teknologi Industri Pertanian, FATETA-IPB, Kampus IPB Darmaga 16680
4)PS Bioteknologi-Sekolah Pasca Sarjana IPB, Gedung PAU, Kampus IPB Darmaga 16680
Autor korespondensi: firstname.lastname@example.org
Diterima 15 Desember 2008/Disetujui 13 Juni 2009
Xylan extraction from corncob is done by using alkaline as solvent. Xylan extraction from corncob could give the yields as 10.9%. One percent of corncob xylan is used as substrate to produce the xylanase, compared to oatspelt xylan.
Immobilization of xylanase was performed using 1% EudragitTM S100 solution (w/v), with 5:1 volume ratio of xylanase and 1 % EudragitTM S100 (w/v). Activity of the immobilized xylanase was decreased to 23.97% compared with free xylanase. Immobilized xylanase have optimum pH and temperature at 6.0 and 40°C respectively, have also thermal stability at 30–40°C for an hour. Immobilized xylanase could be reused, but its activity decreased to 52.38% after 3 times application.
Key words : xilanase, Streptomyces, amobile
MODIFIKASI PATI GARUT (Marantha arundinacea) DENGAN PERLAKUAN SIKLUS PEMANASAN SUHU TINGGI-PENDINGINAN ( AUTOCLAVING-COOLING CYCLING)
UNTUK MENGHASILKAN PATI RESISTEN TIPE III
[Arrowroot (Marantha arundinacea) Starch Modification Through Autoclaving-Cooling Cycling
Treatment to Produce Resistant Starch Type III]
Sugiyono1), Ratih Pratiwi2), dan Didah Nur Faridah1)
1) Dosen Departemen Ilmu dan Teknologi Pangan, Fakultas Teknologi Pertanian-IPB
2) Alumni Departemen Ilmu dan Teknologi Pangan, Fakultas Teknologi Pertanian-IPB
Diterima 3 September 2008/Disetujui 14 Juni 2009
The objectives of this research were to modify arrowroot starch to produce resistant starch type III by autoclaving-cooling cycling and to characterize the modified arrowroot starches according to their chemical properties. The research consisted of three steps : arrowroot extraction, starch modification, and chemical characterization. The extraction of arrowroot produced 10.78% starch. Starch modification by autoclaving-cooling cycle(s) was run in 6 different treatments with the aim of observing optimal yield of resistant starch. Resistant starch (RS) was produced through 1, 3, 5 cycle(s) of autoclaving-cooling treatment with different gelatinization periods (15 and 30 minutes autoclaving) for each cycle. Properties analyzed were starch digestibility, fat content, protein content, resistant starch content, and dietary fiber content. Native starch and commercial RS type III (Novelose 330) were also analyzed as a comparison.
Based on the starch digestibility, modified starch from 5 cycles, 15 minutes gelatinization period had the lowest digestibility while modified starch from 3 cycles, 15 minutes gelatinization period had no significant difference with commercial RS type III. Those two modified starches, native starch, and Novelose 330 were chosen for further chemical analysis. The fat content and protein content of the four samples were below 1% (db). Low fat and protein content were required to optimize the RS yield. The modification treatment increased the dietary fiber content. The RS content of native starch, Novelose 330, modified starch 3 cycles, 15 minutes gelatinization period, and modified starch 5 cycles, 15 minutes gelatinization period were 2.12% (db), 20.80% (db), 10.91% (db), and 12.15% (db), respectively. It means that repeating autoclaving-cooling cycling could increase RS yield up to 6 times.
Key words : arrowroot, resistant starch, starch modification, autoclaving-cooling
OPTIMASI TEKNIK PEMBUATAN TABLET EFFERVESCENT SARI BUAH
DENGAN RESPONSE SURFACE METHOD
[Optimization of Processing Technique of the Fruit Juice Effervescent Tablet with Response Surface Method]
Ansar 1), Budi Rahardjo 2), Zuheid Noor 3), dan Rochmadi 4)
1) Dosen di Jurusan Teknologi Pertanian, FP UNRAM, Mataram
2) Dosen di Jurusan Teknik Pertanian, FTP UGM, Yogyakarta
3) Dosen di Jurusan TPHP, FTP UGM, Yogyakarta
4) Dosen di Jurusan Teknik Kimia, FT UGM, Yogyakarta
Diterima 17 Juni 2008 / Disetujui 25 Juni 2009
This research was aimed to study optimization of processing technique of fruit juice effervescent tablet with Response Surface Method (RSM). The research design used was central composite designs with three dependent variables including X1 (compression force), X2 (the citric acid concentration), and X3 (the sodium bicarbonate concentration), where independent variables was hardness and solubility of the tablet. The results of the research showed that the optimum tablets hardness was 40.53 N that reached at treatment compression force of 2339.8 N; the citric acid concentration of 352.82 mg/gr; and the sodium bicarbonate concentration of 561.62 mg/gr. Whereas the solubilitation of 41.99 second was resulted at treatment compression force of 1417.6 N; 334.24 mg/unit weight citric acid; and 593.90 mg/gr sodium bicarbonate. To get tablet characteristic with high hardness but solubilize quickly, was made at 1500 N compression force; the citric acid concentration 350 mg/gr; and the sodium bicarbonate concentration 500 mg/gr.
Key words: optimization, compression force, hardness, solubility
KAJIAN FORMULASI BISKUIT JAGUNG DALAM RANGKA SUBSTITUSI TEPUNG TERIGU
[Study on Corn Biscuit Formulation to Subtitute of wheat Flour]
Cynthia Gracia C.L1), Sugiyono2), Bambang Haryantoc)
1) Dosen PS Teknologi Hasil Pertanian, Faperta, Unpatti
2)Dosen Dept Ilmu & Teknologi Pangan, Fateta, IPB, 3) Peneliti Ahli BPPT
Diterima 26 Juli 2008/ Disetujui 15 Juni 2009
The research was conducted to study the formulation of substitute by corn flour. The flour used roasted corn flour and unroasted corn flour. Results showed that biscuit’s made of 80 gr corn flour and 20 gr wheat flour were accepted by panelist’s and the best formulation was 80 gr corn flour, 20 gr wheat flour, 50 gr margarine, 50 gr sugar and 10 gr yellow egg both of two corn flour. Roasting treatment of corn flour significantly affected fat content, carbohydrate content and digestibility of protein of the biskuit.
Key words : corn flour, roested, formulation, biscuit
ANALISIS ENZIM ALANIN AMINO TRANSFERASE (ALAT), ASPARTAT AMINO TRANSFERASE (ASAT), UREA DARAH, DAN HISTOPATOLOGIS HATI DAN GINJAL TIKUS PUTIH GALUR Sprague-Dawley SETELAH PEMBERIAN ANGKAK
[The Effects of Angkak Administration in Sprague-Dawley White Rats on Alanine Amino Transferase (ALAT) and Aspartic Amino Transferase (ASAT) Enzyme, Blood Urea, and Liver and Kidney Histopathology Test]
Departemen Biokimia, FMIPA, Institut Pertanian Bogor, Kompleks Fapet IPB, Kampus Darmaga, Bogor, Indonesia, 16680
Diterima 2 Agustus 2008/ Disetujui 14 Juni 2009
Acute toxicity of angkak had been tested on 2 months aged male Sprague-Dawley white rats. Twenty five rats were divided into 5 groups; control, 2.5 g/kg body weight (bw), 5 g/kg bw, 10 g/kg bw and 15 g/kg bw, and each group was administered by angkak in water orally. The toxic effect of angkak to liver and kidney were tested by biochemical analysis for the activity of enzyme alanin amino transferase (ALAT/ EC 18.104.22.168), enzyme aspartate amino transferase (ASAT/ EC 22.214.171.124) and the level of urea in blood at one day before (H-1) and after (H+1) the treatment, as well as 6 days after the treatment (H+6). The mortality rate and clinical symptoms were observed after 24 hours until 6 days after treatment. The rats were necropsied to observe the lesion of liver and kidney both macroscopically and microscopically.
The result shows that all rats still survived since 24 hours to 6 days after the test. During the treatment with ad libitum rat chow contained 18% protein, the body weight of the rats were unsignificantly increased (P>0.05). There were no changed of the appetite, eyes condition, fur, and behaviour of the rats. However, the feces of the rats which were treated with angkak are reddish. The activity of ALAT, ASAT enzyme as well as the urea level in blood were significantly increased as shown on H+1 compared to H-1 within all treatment groups, after that there were no significant changes in those parameter on H+6 compared to H+1. The histopathological result due to angkak on kidney shows less lesions and these lesions were reversible.
Key words: Angkak, Monascus sp., Acute Toxicity, Liver and Kidney
THE EFFECT OF ETHYLENE IN MAINTAINING QUALITY OF TOMATO SLICES
Darwin H. Pangaribuan
Faculty of Agriculture, University of Lampung, Indonesia, 35145
Diterima 29 Juni 2008 / Disetujui 14 Juni 2009
Processes such as slicing tomato fruits disrupt the plant tissue so the products become more perishable compared with the intact fruit. Ethylene production is stimulated during the slicing of fresh cut tomato slices. Experiments were conducted to investigate if ethylene absorbent and exogenous ethylene influences the quality of tomato slices cv. ‘Revolution’ during storage at 5°C. In the experiment of ethylene absorbent, experiment was laid out in a completely randomised design. The treatments were plus 10 g and minus ethylene absorbent (KMnO4; PurafilÒ; 5°C for 12 d). In the experiment of ethylene concentrations, experiment was laid out in a completely randomised design. The treatments were exogenous ethylene concentrations of 0 (control), 0.1, 1 or 10 mL L–1 respectively (5°C for 6 h). In both experiments, the treatments were replicated 5 fold. Results showed that ethylene absorbent resulted in reduced ethylene accumulation, and CO2 accumulation in enclosed containers, and firmer slices. Ethylene applied 2 days after slicing stimulated the rate of ethylene production, CO2 production, and produced softer slices during storage. Changes in soluble solids concentration and titratable acidity development were independent of ethylene effects. These experiments showed that ethylene produced by slicing or introduced exogenously had an undesirable effect of accelerating softening of tomato slices.
Key words: sliced tomato, ethylene.
EVALUASI NILAI GIZI PATI RESISTEN PADA PRODUK KERUPUK DARI EMPAT JENIS PATI
[Nutritional Evaluation of Resistant Starch of Crackers Made of Four Kinds of Starch]
R o s i d a
1) Staf Pengajar Jurusan Teknologi Pangan, UPN Veteran Jawa Timur, Surabaya
Diterima 6 Juli 2008 / Disetujui 22 Desember 2008
In this research, resistant starch content of crackers (=kerupuk) made of corn starch, cassava starch, sago starch and mungbean starch has been studied. Nutritional evaluation of crackers was conducted in experimental rats. It was found that starch content, amylose content and resistant starch content of sago starch were the highest, while those of mungbean starch were the lowest.
Bioassay with rats revealed that starch flour diets had no effect on the water content of digesta, but these diets increased the weight, volume, concentration and pooled of the short chain fatty acid (SCFA) of digesta and decreased pH of digesta especially in rats fed sago crackers. Molar ratio of acetate and propionate were highest in rats fed sago crackers, while molar ratio of butyrate was highest in rats fed cassava crackers, therefore it has positive effect on human colon health.
Key words : resistant starch, corn starch, cassava starch, sago starch, mungbean starch, crackers
PENGARUH CaCl2 DAN EDIBLE FILM TERHADAP PENGHAMBATAN CHILLING INJURY
BUAH NANGKA KUPAS
[Effect of CaCl2 and Edible Film on Chilling Injury Inhibition of fresh-cut Jackfruits]
Ida Bagus Banyuro Partha 1), Suparmo 2), Moh. Ali Joko Wasono 3), dan Maria Ulfah 1)
1) Staf Pengajar Fakultas Teknologi Pertanian, Institut Pertanian Stiper Yogyakarta
2) Staf Pengajar Fakultas Teknologi Pertanian, Universitas Gadjah Mada Yogyakarta
3) Staf Pengajar Fakultas MIPA Universitas Gadjah Mada Yogyakarta
Diterima 29 Juni 2008 / Disetujui 26 Juni 2009
Effect of CaCl2 soaking and edible film coating to delay or inhibit chilling injury of freshly-cut jackfruit has been studied. The onset of chilling injury was monitored based on sadden increase of ethylene emission as measured on-line using CO2-laser driven photoacoustic spectrometer.
Freshly cut edible part of ripe jackfruit was used as the research material. The fruit was soaked in 0%, 1%, 1,5%, 2% of CaCl2 for 15 minutes. After rinsing, sample were divided into two parts each for edible coating and control. The edible film was prepared by soaking of the samples for 30 seconds in solution of white bean (Phaseolus lunatus, L.) edible coating, which was derived from our previous research. The samples were devided into two parts for destructive and non destructive analysis. Both were then stored at 4oC for 3 days, at which time the normal fruit suffer from chilling injury. For the non-destructive analysis, the samples were individually put in special cuvet and a flow-trough air system was connected to each cuvet for on-line ethylene monitoring. Data of real-time ethylene emission were collected automatically every 120 minutes during the three day cold storage. The other set of samples were put in a plascic bag and stored at 4oC for 3 days period. At the end of cold stored, the samples were let to adjust to room temperature for 1 hr before subjected to respiration rate, reducing sugars, total acidity, and texture analysis.
Result indicated that soaking with CaCl2 and edible film coating of freshly-cut jackfruit delayed the on-set of chilling injury as indicated by late increase of ethylene emission. Based on pattern of ethylene emission during the three day storage and their respiration rate, the best treatment to delay chilling injury of fresly-cut jackfruit was soaking in CaCl2 2% in combination with edible film coating.
Key word: Jackfruit, CaCl2, ethylene, cold storage, chilling injury, photoacoustic spectrometer
PENGARUH KADAR AIR, NaCl DAN JUMLAH PASSING TERHADAP KARAKTERISTIK
REOLOGI MI JAGUNG
[The Effect of Moisture, NaCl and Number of Passing on Corn Noodle Rheological Properties]
Tjahja Muhandri dan Subarna
Staf Pengajar FATETA – IPB Bogor
Diterima 4 Desember 2008 / Disetujui 26 Juni 2009
The objective of this research was to investigate the effect of moisture (70, 75 and 80% v/w), NaCl ((0, 1, 3%) and number of passing (1, 2 and 3 times) on the properties of the corn noodle. The 100 mesh of corn flour of P21 variety and scientific laboratory single screw extruder were used. Cooking loss decreased with the increase of moisture and NaCl. Hardness decreased with the increase of moisture, NaCl and passing. Cohesiveness, tensile strength and elongation increased with the increase of moisture, NaCl and number of passing.
Key word: Corn noodle, rheological properties, cooking loss