Sterilisasi dingin dengan PAA

sterilisasi PET

sterilisasi PET

Sterilisasi adalah proses mematikan semua mikroorganisme termasuk bakteri, spora bakteri,kapang dan virus. Sterilisasi yang tidak baik dapat menghasilkan penyebaran infeksi bakteri dan virus seperti hepatitis dan HIV.

Perebusan bukanlah metode sterilisasi. Sterilisasi umumnya dilakukan menggunakan autoklaf untuk yang menggunakan panas bertekanan. Cara lain yang kini dikembangkan adalah sterilisasi basah untuk produk-produk yang tidak tahan panas.

Sterilisasi basah

Teknologi pengemasan aseptik untuk minuman yang sensitif terhadap asam kini telah dikembangkan. Konsep aseptis ini menggunakan larutan PAA (peracetic acid) sebagai medium sterilisasi, isolator mikrobial untuk pengendali lingkungan, Sistem aseptik ini digunakan dalam sterilisasi botol PET yang sat ini banyak digunakan dalam industri minuman.

Dasar sterilisasi basah dengan PAA

  • Botol disterilkan dengan penyemprotan larutan PAA dengan botol menghadap ke bawah, PAA dan tampung untuk dapat digunakan kembali.
  • Botol dicuci dengan menyemprotkan air steil (botol menghadap ke bawah), air cucian ditampung untuk dapat digunakan kembali.
  • Kendalikam laju aliran semprotan, konsentrasi PAA, suhu dan tekanan.
  • Pengurangan mikroorganisme yang dilakukan dapat mencapai 6 log penurunan (6D)

Penggunaan PAA lebih baik daripada hidrogen peroksida karena lebih efektif terhadap kontaminan. Suhu yang umum digunakana dalah 65 C atau kurang jika produknya asam. Larutan PAA tidak bermigrasi ke dalam molekul PET selama sterilisasi sehingga digunakan sebagai alternatif pengganti hidrogen peroksida yang dapat bermigrasi ke dalam matrik PET.

Fermentasi Jus Wortel

Perkembangan ekonomi dan sosial akhir-akhir ini menimbulkan dampak terhadap kesehatan yang cukup serius. Stres dan gaya hidup yang sangat sibuk mengakibatkan manusia mengalami gangguan kesehatan seperti serangan jantung, tekanan darah tinggi, gangguan pencernaan dan berbagai tipe kanker. Nutrisi yang tidak benar dapat menyebabkan gangguan usus dan berpengaruh negatif terhadap sistem kekebalan, oleh sebab itu perlu dikenalkan asupan nutrien seimbang agar hidup menjadi lebih sehat. Salah satu cara untuk mencegah atau mengeliminasi penyakit ini adalah merancang dan mengkonsumsi pangan probiotik yang mengandung mikroorganisme hidup. Probiotik akan memperbaiki keseimbangan mikrobia usus dan juga mampu mengatasi lactose intolerance, mencegah infeksi usus dan kanker usus, memperkuat sistem kekebalan, mereduksilevel kolesterol serum, menstimulasi absorpsi kalsium, mensintesis vitamin (vitamin B, Asam nikotinat, dan asam folat), dan membantu kecernaan protein.

Kebanyakan pangan probiotik yang dikonsumsi manusia mengandung Lactobacilli dan/atau Bifidobacteria, tetapi beberapa produk probiotik sering mengandung pula strain-strain Enterococcus atau khamir seperti Saccharomyces boulardii.

Pada percobaan menggunakan jus wortel, dengan konsentrasi sel 106 cfu/ml, jumlah Bifidobacteria mencapai 108 cfu/ml setelah 24jam fermentasi dan tetap bertahan hidup sampai 32 jam. pH akan turun dari 6,0 menjadi di bawah 5,0. Sementara itu jumlah bakteri mesofil aerob juga meningkat secara eksponensial dan mencapai jumlah antara 5 X 104 cfu/ml dan 8 X 105 cfu/ml. Jumlah coliform lebih tinggi daripada batas yang ditetapkan. Namun jika digunakan konsentrasi awal 107 cfu/ml, maka dalam waktu 6 jam jumlah Bifidobacteria telah mencapai 108 cfu/ml, sedangkan mesofilik aerob hanya mencapai 102 cfu/ml dan coliform yang terdeteksi 10 cfu/ml. Konsentrasi sel maksimum dapat mencapai lebih dari 108 cfu/ml dalam 12 jam fermentasi.

Fermentasi jus wortel dibuat dengan cara: wortel dicuci dan dikupas kemudian dicuci lago. Jus wortel dibuat dengan Juice extractor tanpa penambahan air dan nutrien. Jus yang diperoleh dimasukkan dalam wadah dan diinokulasi dengan strain Bifidobacterium. Fermentasi dilakukan secara anaeerob pada suhu 370C selama 24 jam.

Sumber Pustaka

Szila rd Kun, Judit M. Rezessy-Szabo , Quang D. Nguyen ,and A´ goston Hoschke. Changes of microbial population and some components in carrot juice during fermentation with selected Bifidobacterium strains. Process Biochemistry 43 (2008) 816–821

FDA Updates Health Information Advisory on Melamine Contamination

The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is alerting consumers that seven Mr. Brown instant coffee and milk tea products are being recalled by the Taiwanese company, King Car Food Industrial Co. Ltd., due to possible contamination with melamine. King Car Food Industrial Co. used a non-dairy creamer manufactured by Shandong Duqing Inc., China, which was found to be contaminated with melamine. The recalled products are:

  • Mr. Brown Mandheling Blend Instant Coffee (3-in-1)
  • Mr. Brown Arabica Instant Coffee (3-in-1)
  • Mr. Brown Blue Mountain Blend Instant Coffee (3-in-1)
  • Mr. Brown Caramel Macchiato Instant Coffee (3-in-1)
  • Mr. Brown French Vanilla Instant Coffee (3-in-1)
  • Mr. Brown Mandhling Blend instant Coffee (2-in-1)
  • Mr. Brown Milk Tea (3-in-1)

The FDA recommends that consumers not consume any of the above Mr. Brown instant coffee and milk tea products. The FDA also recommends that retailers and foodservice operators remove the products from sale or service.

As of September 25, 2008, the FDA testing of milk based products imported into the United States from China has not found melamine contamination.

The FDA is working with regulatory agencies in other countries. The New Zealand Food Safety Authority reports that its testing of White Rabbit Creamy Candies has shown melamine contamination at high levels. In light of the widespread contamination of milk and milk-based products in China and the New Zealand Food Safety Authority’s finding, the FDA recommends that consumers not eat White Rabbit Creamy Candy and that retailers and foodservice operations remove the product from sale or service.

To date, the FDA is not aware of any illnesses in the United States stemming from consumption of either White Rabbit Creamy Candy or the Mr. Brown instant coffee and milk tea products.

Individuals who have experienced any health problems after consuming either White Rabbit Creamy Candy or any of the identified Mr. Brown coffee and tea products are advised to contact their health care professional.

Background

On September 12, 2008, in light of reports from China of melamine contaminated infant formula, the FDA issued a Health Information Advisory to assure the American public that there is no known threat of contamination in infant formula manufactured by companies that have met the requirements to sell such products in the United States.  That advisory also warned members of Chinese communities in the United States that infant formula manufactured in China, possibly available for purchase at Asian markets, could pose a risk to infants.

The FDA had contacted the companies who manufacture infant formula for distribution in the United States and received, from the companies, information that they are not importing formula or sourcing milk-based materials from China.

At the same time, the FDA—in conjunction with state and local officials—began a nation-wide investigation to check Asian markets for Chinese manufactured infant formula that may have been brought into the United States. In particular, this effort focused on areas of the country with large Chinese communities, such as Los Angeles, San Francisco, Seattle and New York.  To date, investigators have visited more than 1,400 retail markets and have not found Chinese infant formula present on shelves in these markets.

The FDA also advises consumers not to purchase infant formula manufactured in China from Internet sites or from other sources.

The FDA has taken, and will continue to take, proactive measures to help ensure the safety of the American food supply.  In conjunction with state and local officials, the FDA will continue to check Asian markets for food items that are imported from China and that could contain a significant amount of milk or milk proteins.  In addition, the FDA has broadened its domestic and import sampling and testing of milk-derived ingredients and finished food products containing milk, such as candies, desserts, and beverages that could contain these ingredients from Chinese sources.  Milk-derived ingredients include whole milk powder, non-fat milk powder, whey powder, lactose powder, and casein.

In addition to state and local governments, the FDA is working in close cooperation with Customs and Border Protection within the U.S. Department of Homeland Security, the U.S. Department of Agriculture, other federal agencies, and foreign governments.

http://www.fda.gov/bbs/topics/NEWS/2008/NEW01891.html